Stages, symptoms, signs and treatment of breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common oncological disease in women. The tumor consists of undifferentiated malignant cells replacing the glandular tissue. The urgency of the disease increased in the late seventies of the last century. The disease was characterized by the predominant lesion of women over the age of fifty. A feature of modern oncopathogenesis is a disease in childbearing age.

How many live with breast cancer?

This question is of interest to all patients admitted to the oncology center. They ask him to find out the truth, even if it's terrible. Any doctor knows that the prognosis of the outcome of the disease should be approached with caution. There are examples of inhibition of carcinogenesis of advanced stages and accelerated development of breast cancer, revealed in the early stages.

However, there is more chance of recovery in a patient with an early operable form of oncology, if one abstracts from:

  • Individual characteristics (age, presence of concomitant diseases, support and understanding of relatives and friends, setting for struggle for life);
  • Efficiency and timeliness of treatment.

There are cases of preservation of the breast in the detection of pathogenesis in the early stages of the disease. Oncologists sometimes decide to remove the breast. This is unpleasant, but not deadly. The support of relatives is important. In pathogenesis with metastases to other parts of the body, the prognosis is cautious, it is necessary to fight, because it is possible to suppress the growth of pathological cells even at this stage.

The first signs of breast cancer

Women often face breast problems in the form of nodular or extensive seals and other signs that frighten the similarity with oncology. Fortunately, not all education is malignant. Pain and tightness in the chest accompany:

  • Mastitis - inflammatory diseases;
  • Mastopathy - small (nodular), extensive (diffuse) seals;
  • Fibroadenoma - benign neoplasms.

Mastitis is an inflammation of the functioning gland of an infectious or traumatic nature. In some cases, there is a connection with mastopathies that are not related to lactation. General characteristics of mastitis. Typically, the first time afflicted women who rarely did not give birth to young women. The disease is associated with the ingress of banal microflora (staphylococcus, streptococci) through the nipple cracks inside the gland, hormonal malfunctions, hypothermia, trauma, improper application of the baby. Risk group: primiparous women.

    Signs of mastitis:
  • Condensation in the chest, initially diffuse;
  • Stiffening pain, which is aggravated by feeding;
  • Increase in local and general temperature;
  • Purulent cavity formation and nodular condensation possible;
  • Discharge from the nipple during lactation (liquid, viscous, purulent, bloody).

From oncology mastitis is characterized by a rapid debut associated with the above reasons, which are determined during the interview of the patient and in the collection of anamnesis. Mastopathy is not an inflammatory disease, it is associated with abnormal growth of the alveoli and ducts of the breast under the influence of hormonal imbalance - an increase in the level of estrogens, prolactin, a decrease in progesterone in the blood and tissues of the gland. There are nodular and diffuse form of mastopathy. Due to the proliferation of tissues, this disease is called fibrocystic pathology. Risk group: women over 35 years.

    Signs of mastopathy:
  • When you feel the seal, resembling grains (nodules) or strands (diffuse lesions).
  • A combination of pathology with a violation of menstrual or climacteric reconstructions of the organism is possible;
  • The pain develops gradually as the seals increase;
  • With prolonged course, symptoms of mastitis may join.

Fibroadenoma - a benign formation of glandular tissue, which has an unclear etiology. Distinguish mature fibroadenomas (the form is well contoured) and immature (form loose). Some formations tend to degenerate. Risk group: women from 20 years.

    Signs of fibroadenoma:
  • Single or multiple seals in the chest;
  • Pain and other signs are often absent.

It is advisable to consult a mammologist for consultations.

Hormone-dependent breast cancer

Due to the peculiarities of physiology, the body of a woman is under the hormonal press much stronger than the male. Important functions are the hormones produced primarily by the ovaries - estrogens, progesterone, pituitary - LH, FSH. In this case, there are regular hormonal changes associated with natural physiological processes.

Against the backdrop of modern life, the number of risks associated with the imbalance of the hormonal status has repeatedly increased. First of all, this is a wide application of endocrine regulation of fertility. Some of the factors were mentioned at the beginning of the article.

It is noted that in many forms of breast hyperplasia endocrine disorders are noted, as well as a very high level of estrogen, prolactin against the background of a decrease in the level of progesterone. This ratio persists in the clinical manifestation of breast cancer. The predominantly estrogen-dependent and predominantly progesteroid-dependent forms of breast cancer are allocated. Hormonal imbalance with good effect is treated on average in one third of patients with both forms of cancer with endocrine therapy. The sensitivity of the sensitive group is 75%.

Along with the long-term use of hormones - analogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, the regulation of the function of the ovaries can be carried out by physical methods (radiation irradiation) and surgical castration.