An increase in the concentration of estradiol in the blood is observed
Also, the level of estradiol increases with the intake of certain drugs (clomiphene, cimetidine, mifepristone, trolleandomycin, phenytoin, nafarelin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, anabolic steroids, and oral contraceptives containing estrogens).
Reduction in the level of the hormone is observed with weight loss, significant physical exertion, restriction of animal fats in the diet and carbohydrates, smoking, vegetarianism, alcoholism, hyperprolactinaemia, and pituitary dysfunction. In addition, hypoestradiolaemia (a deficiency of estradiol) occurs in chronic inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, delayed sexual development, the threat of abortion and the taking of certain medications (dexamethasone, beucerylene, megestrol, moclobemide, nandrolone, cyproterone, epistane, pravastatin, octreotide).
Blood for the analysis of estradiol is taken in the morning, since from 15 to 18 hours there is an increase in the hormone content, fasting, with the restriction of sexual activity, smoking, alcohol and fatty foods on the eve of the analysis.
Indications for analysis:
Normalization of estradiol in the blood of women engaged in a doctor gynecologist-endocrinologist. In severe climacteric syndrome, estradiol preparations are administered according to the contraceptive scheme for 2-3 months (estradiol valerate, estriol, ovestin, ethinyl-estradiol). It is possible to administer conjugated estrogens (premarin, harmaplex). Estrogen-containing preparations are issued in the form of ointments, patches, vaginal suppositories and tablets.
With premenstrual syndrome and after removal of the ovaries, oral estrogen-progestative medications are recommended. When the pregnancy is overestimated and the estradiol is lowered, proginova, estrofem are prescribed to stimulate childbirth.
With a delay in sexual development, as well as with estrogen deficiency, estradiol is required in a dose of 1-2 mg for 3 weeks with a seven-day break. The course of treatment lasts 6 months. In the case of diagnosis of tumors of the pelvic organs, surgical intervention is performed.
To organs-targets of estrogens, including estradiol, include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vulva, vagina and mammary glands. Estradiol in the female body is produced in the ovaries granulosa cells of the follicles, as well as the adrenal glands and fatty tissue.
The amount of the hormone depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. During the gestation period, the level of estradiol in the blood increases significantly, and the greatest content is noted before childbirth. Estradiol in the body of the future mother is responsible for maintaining the pregnancy, the state of the uterine vessels and the increase in blood circulation in them, increases the coagulability of blood, which prevents bleeding in childbirth.
In a non-pregnant woman, the content of estradiol is controlled by follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones. Thus, in the follicular phase (1-14 days) of the menstrual cycle, the concentration of the hormone gradually increases and reaches a maximum at the time of ovulation. In the luteal phase (16-28 days), the content of estradiol decreases and becomes minimal at the onset of menstruation.
Also, the hormone prepares the mucous membrane of the uterus for attachment (implantation) of a fertilized egg. After fertilization and growth of the embryo, the function of the formation of estradiol passes to the placenta.
In addition, the hormone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, sexual desire and the distribution of fatty deposits by the female type. It is the estradiol of a woman due to the high timbre of voice, gentle and smooth skin. Also, estradiol affects the level of cholesterol, activates the growth of bones and metabolic processes in them, promotes fluid retention and sodium (causes swelling) and normalizes the mood. After the onset of menopause, the hormone content drops sharply, as it is no longer formed in the ovaries, but is synthesized in the adrenal glands.